Pitched roof: principles of the device, calculation, do-it-yourself installation and maintenance

 Pitched roof: principles of the device, calculation, do-it-yourself installation and maintenance

In order to choose a suitable pitched roof design, you need to take into account a number of features of a particular area, choose a roofing material and a method of insulating the under-roof space. It is also necessary to take care of ventilation, proper drainage and further maintenance of the roof. The pitched roof, built in accordance with building codes and requirements, will serve for many years and protect your home from bad weather.

What is pitched roof

The roofs of buildings and structures for various purposes are divided into flat and pitched. Flat roofs are used in urban development and in private construction for small utility rooms. When erecting low-rise country and country houses, pitched roofs of various designs are usually erected. They are devoid of the disadvantages of flat roofs and allow sediment to be diverted into the gutter system, protecting the walls of the building and the foundation from excess moisture. The rafter system of the slopes is a technically complex structure, but it effectively resists wind impact and evenly distributes the load on the walls of the house.

A roof is considered to be pitched if it has surfaces with an angle of inclination of more than 5about... The choice of pitched roof design and roofing material is influenced by the following factors:

  • climatic conditions of the region, taking into account extreme wind and snow loads;
  • the specificity of the topographic location and the size of the building site;
  • habitability of the roof space;
  • design approaches to design in accordance with the wishes of the customer.

Depending on financial capabilities, you can choose a roof project with minimal costs or calculate and build a multi-level complex roof with different types of slopes and residential attics. An overview of the types of pitched roof will help you make a choice.

Types of pitched roofs

In the construction of low-rise buildings, different types of pitched roofs are often mixed, which gives the building an original and unique look. At the same time, many roof owners are building their roofs in strict accordance with a specific style using standard, tried and tested solutions. Consider the main types of pitched roofs that are popular in our country:

  1. Shed roof. This is the least expensive type of roof and is suitable for small houses, baths and outbuildings. The rafter system rests on the walls of the structure, the angle of inclination of the slope depends on the expected snow load and can be from 10 to 25about.

    Shed roofs are well suited for small houses, giving them a stylish and finished look

  2. Gable roof. The most popular version of the roof, consisting of two planes with an angle of inclination from 25about... Varieties of this type are mansard and semi-hip roofs.

    A gable roof is the most popular option in suburban construction

  3. Hip or hipped roof. This option is chosen when covering rectangular houses and may have different slope angles.

    The hip roof allows you to arrange a full-fledged living space on the second floor

  4. Multi-gable roof with living under-roof space and various slope angles.

    A multi-gable roof consists of a large number of ramps, forming several ridge elements and valleys

  5. Hip roof. It is arranged over buildings of a square shape and consists of four isosceles triangular slopes, converging at one point.

    A hipped roof is a special case of a hip structure erected over a square-shaped house

  6. Conical or steeple roof. Such roofs require special qualifications of builders, therefore they are rarely used in housing construction.

    A conical roof is a complex and expensive structure, therefore it is rarely used in private construction.

When choosing the type of pitched roof, it is necessary to select the appropriate roofing material so that it does not violate the harmonious appearance of the building, has a significant service life and temperature resistance.

Principles of the device of pitched roofs

When designing pitched roofs, the requirements for strength and water tightness are taken into account, which affect the principle of assembly of load-bearing structures and the choice of roofing material. The task of the load-bearing elements is to evenly distribute the weight of the roof, wind and snow loads on the walls of the house. Depending on the selected type of pitched roof, a rafter system is also built into which a residential under-roof space can be inscribed. When arranging a cold attic space, the ceiling between the attic and the living quarters must be carefully insulated.

The device of pitched roofs must comply with the requirements of the Federal Law of December 30, 2009 N 384-FZ "Technical Regulations on the Safety of Buildings and Structures", and also be designed taking into account the set of rules of SP 17.13330.2011. Roofs built in accordance with the requirements of the rules and regulations will have strength, water resistance, thermal protection and maintainability.

The main units of pitched roofs

The choice of the design of the pitched roof is made taking into account the number of storeys of the building and the climatic characteristics of the area, since the angle of inclination of the slopes, the design of the rafters and the composition of the roofing cake depend on these parameters. The roof consists of the following main elements:

  • transverse floor beams (tightening), which are attached to the Mauerlat every 60–90 cm, with the extension from the walls of the house by the amount of the eaves overhang;
  • rafters that form roof slopes with a selected angle of inclination;
  • auxiliary rafter elements that are used on roofs of complex shapes;
  • ridge - the junction of the upper parts of the rafter legs, which are fixed by a run;
  • valleys, covering from moisture the places of the lower connection of the slopes;
  • gables;
  • cornices that protect the walls of the building from wind and precipitation;
  • lathing providing fastening of the roofing material;
  • waterproof and heat-insulating layer;
  • roof covering.

Photo gallery: basic elements of pitched roofs

It should be noted that complex roofs consist of a large number of auxiliary rafter elements that are needed to increase the rigidity of the structure. Some of the components of a pitched roof perform several functions at the same time and require more detailed study. Consider the eaves design as one of the important elements of the pitched roof, which is responsible for the safety of the building walls, ventilation of the under-roof space and the drainage system.

Roof cornice

The lower part of the pitched roof, protruding beyond the plane of the outer wall of the building, is called the cornice. Its main function is to protect the walls of the house and the foundation blind area from atmospheric precipitation, therefore, the length of the eaves overhang on slopes not equipped with a drainage system should be more than 600 mm. In the event that the length of the rafters is not enough to equip a full-fledged cornice, they are increased with the help of fillies.

For the device of a full-fledged eaves overhang, the rafters can be lengthened with the help of filly

The lower cut of the roof slope is used for the installation of gutters and funnels of the drainage system, for which a frontal board is mounted on vertically cut rafters. Brackets and a cornice strip are fixed on it to drain precipitation from the roof into the drain. In addition, a drip is attached to the cornice, through which condensate flows from the waterproof film.

The removal of excess moisture from the eaves of the pitched roof is carried out using a dropper attached to the front eaves board

In order to ensure effective ventilation of the under-roof space and give the building an aesthetic appearance, the eaves overhang is hemmed with perforated soffits or other materials with holes for free air circulation. Ventilation will extend the life of the roof and supporting structures.

The eaves overhang from the bottom side is hemmed with a perforated soffit or any other material with holes for ventilation

With a significant value of the eaves overhang between the wall of the building and the cut of the rafters, a beam is installed that removes part of the snow load on the eaves by creating a rigid triangular structure. Sheathing and soffit are attached to it using F- and J-strips.

With large sizes of the eaves overhang, a bar is installed between the rafter leg and the wall of the house to increase the rigidity of the structure

The cornice is most susceptible to moisture, so it is very important to treat all wooden structures with wood preservatives that prevent rotting, mold formation and insects.

Calculation of the area and slope of a pitched roof

To calculate the amount of roofing material, you need to know the area of ​​the slopes.

  1. For pitched or gable roofs, they are rectangles, the area of ​​which is calculated by the formula S = A ∙ B, where A and B are the length and width of the slope, respectively, and S is its area. Summing up the areas of the slopes, we get the total roof area.

    The total roof area is calculated as the sum of the areas of its slopes.

  2. To calculate the area of ​​hipped, gable and conical roofs, you need to use the formula for calculating the area of ​​a triangle S = 0.5 ∙ B ∙ H, where S is the area of ​​the triangle, B is the length of its base, H is the height.
  3. Calculating the area of ​​the hip roof will require calculating the area of ​​the trapezoid using the formula S = (A + B) / 2 ∙ H, where A and B are the upper and lower base of the trapezoid, H is its height.

    To calculate the area of ​​the hip roof, the formulas for the area of ​​a triangle and a trapezoid from the school geometry course are used

  4. If the roof slope or fragment has the shape of a parallelogram, then the total result can be calculated using the formula: S = A ∙ H, where S is the area of ​​the fragment, A is the length of the base and H is the height of the parallelogram.

The total roof area can be calculated by summing the individual pieces. When calculating the required material, it is necessary to clarify the value of the vertical and horizontal overlap for a specific roofing and take this data into account. In addition, in the case of triangular and trapezoidal slopes, it must be remembered that up to 50% of the material can be used for cutting, so the final calculation must be carried out very carefully, in consultation with a specialist and based on the size of the coating.

The slope of the pitched roof is usually indicated in the design documentation, which takes into account the climatic conditions and the wind rose in the construction region. In the absence of a project, snow and wind loads must be taken into account. For example, at an angle of inclination of more than 50about snow on the roof practically does not linger, but the effect of wind on the roof significantly increases. This leads to unjustified costs for increasing the strength of the rafter system. In the middle lane, a slope of 15 to 45 is used.about, but for a residential under-roof space, especially for a mansard roof, this value must be specified. For comfortable living in an attic room, a ceiling height of 2 to 3 m is required, so the angle of inclination of the slopes can be calculated using the formula tg (α) = H / L, where H is the required ridge height, L is half the length of the pediment. Further, the angle α is found from special tables.

The angle of inclination of the roof can be calculated, knowing the required height of the attic room and the geometric dimensions of the building.

The simplest method for determining the slope of the slope is to use a protractor, beacons and a measuring line, with the help of which the required slope angle is set and the height of the ridge and the length of the slope are determined.

The maximum living space can be obtained during the construction of a multi-gable, hip and sloped mansard roof, and the gable roof is the easiest and most economical to manufacture.

Table: determination of the angle of inclination of the roof by the value of its tangent

tg (α)αsin (α)
0,0950,09
0,18100,17
0,27150,26
0,36200,34
0,47250,42
0,58300,5
0,7350,57
0,84400,64
1,0450,71
1,19500,77
1,43550,82
1,73600,87

Pitched Roof Roofing Pie

In the conditions of the Russian climate, to protect the living space under the roof from temperature extremes, it is necessary to insulate the attic and the roof. For this, a multi-layer coating is used, which is called a roofing cake, where each layer performs a specific function:

  1. The roof covering protects the building from the effects of precipitation and removes excess moisture.
  2. The battens and counter battens are used to fasten the roofing material and create a ventilated gap.
  3. A diffusion waterproof coating is necessary for the drainage of condensate and ensures the safety of the insulation and rafters.
  4. A layer of insulation protects the living space from temperature changes.
  5. A vapor barrier film protects the insulation from fumes from the interior.
  6. The interior trim is attached through the counter rail to the rafter system.

    To insulate the living room under the roof, a multi-layer cake is used, consisting of several layers, which are stacked in a strictly defined order

A carefully assembled roofing cake will ensure the life of the roof for a long time. It is very important to check with the supplier about the properties of the materials used in the roofing work. Parameters such as the method of fastening, the size of overlaps and the coefficient of thermal conductivity will help to correctly mount all elements of the multilayer coating.

Video: attic insulation, roofing pie

Pitched roof installation principles

High-quality installation of the roof is ensured by strict adherence to the sequence of technological operations. In this case, marriage and damage to the material are excluded. For installation work, you must:

  1. Treat the rafters, frontal board, lathing and other wooden structures with an antiseptic compound and let them dry.
  2. Prepare the necessary materials and provide the workplace with reliable scaffolding, ladders and safety ropes, as well as prepare working tools.
  3. On dry rafters, starting from the eaves, fix the diffusion waterproofing membrane with an overlap of at least 10 cm.
  4. Fill the rafters with counter-lattice bars, and install the lathing on them with a step that depends on the selected roofing material.

    Bars of counter-lattice are laid on the waterproofing film along the rafters, and on them in the longitudinal direction a crate is mounted under the roofing

  5. Before installing the roofing, it is necessary to equip the eaves, fix the drip on the frontal board and glue the diffusion film to it with double-sided tape.
  6. Screw on the drainage system brackets and the curtain rail.

    Gutter brackets are installed prior to roofing installation

  7. The installation of roofing sheets should be carried out in a certain order, because the geometry of the slope is not ideal and distortions may occur. The first sheets are aligned along the cornice strip and the edge of the pediment and fixed with self-tapping screws, then the guide cords are pulled and the subsequent sheets are aligned and fastened along them.

    The roofing begins to be mounted from one of the gables and gradually move along the eaves

  8. At the final stage of work, it is necessary to fix the gable wind strips and ridge additional elements. The air stream from the eaves passes through the ridge, which provides ventilation of the under-roof space and reduces the likelihood of condensation formation.

    The ridge element provides ventilation of the roof space

When installing the roof, it must be remembered that all work is carried out at a height, therefore, compliance with safety rules is mandatory.

Video: roof waterproofing, installation of counter-braces and battens

Living space ventilation

Comfortable living conditions in the house are ensured by correctly assembled heating systems that will not work without air flow. In addition, it is necessary to get rid of extraneous odors and excessive moisture in the living area. For this, a ventilation system is used, which provides an influx of fresh air and removes carbon dioxide and vaporous moisture from inhabited rooms, including from the attic. Good air exchange creates comfortable living conditions and the possibility of good rest. The ventilation system performs the following functions:

  • creates an influx of fresh air;
  • removes unpleasant odors, dust, vapors, carbon dioxide and combustion products;
  • provides a normal level of oxygen in living quarters;
  • maintains normal air humidity in the living space.

The air entering the room passes through filters and is supplied either forcibly or naturally, therefore ventilation systems are divided into supply and natural types.

How to make natural ventilation in the house

With a natural type of ventilation, air exchange is carried out due to the pressure difference at the level of the inlet and the aerator, which is located on the roof slope. Air is cleaned in living quarters through a system of ventilation ducts.

Natural ventilation of the premises occurs due to air circulation, due to the pressure difference in the room and in the places where the aerators are installed

The incoming cold air flow is mixed with warm air and is drawn through the ventilation duct into the atmosphere. For air flow into the attic, you can use a flight of stairs, and cut a hole decorated with a grill in the common house exhaust channel for the hood. In order to warm up cold air in winter, supply ventilation valves are used, which are placed on top of heating radiators.

Air intake for ventilation of premises occurs through the supply valve located above the heating radiator

For the under-roof space, another type of natural ventilation is used, which does not allow the insulation to get wet and caked. Outside air is taken in through the cornice and soffits and discharged through aerators cut into the pitched roof in the area of ​​the ridge.

Ventilation of the under-roof space will allow to remove condensate in time and protect wooden roof structures from decay

Cold attic ventilation

An uninhabited attic space is not heated and ventilated according to a different principle. The living space is insulated and the attic is kept cold. In winter, this allows you to save on heating, and in summer - to maintain a comfortable temperature in the living quarters. A roofing cake consists of a waterproofing film, sheathing and roofing material. The lack of insulation and vapor barrier allows you to get rid of melting snow and ice formation on the roof in winter.

Correctly mounted ventilation allows you to remove moisture in time and maintain a comfortable temperature in living quarters

The air flow through the soffits is discharged through ridge or point aerators. The ventilation shafts pass through the attic and do not affect the air temperature in the under-roof space. The cold attic ensures the safety of rafter structures and lathing because it excludes the formation of condensation even on metal roofing.

Ventilation shaft height

The efficiency of the system depends on the height of the ventilation pipe in all weather conditions. The parameters of the exhaust ventilation shaft are determined by the regulatory documents SP 31-106-2002 and SP 2.3.6.1079-01. It follows from them that on pitched roofs, the height of the ventilation pipe depends on its distance to the ridge of the roof:

  • at a distance of up to 1.5 m, the ventilation duct should be 50 cm above the ridge;
  • when the pipe is located at a distance of 1.5 to 3 m from the ridge, its head should be located at the level of the highest point of the roof;
  • with an even greater distance from the ventilation shaft, the pipe should reach an imaginary line drawn from the ridge at an angle of 10o to the horizon.

    The height of the ventilation shaft depends on its location relative to the ridge and is regulated by regulatory documents

For various regions with increased wind loads and snowmaking, there are amendments to regulatory documents that need to be clarified with construction specialists and designers.

Video: DIY natural ventilation in a private house

Pitched roof thermal insulation

A residential under-roof space must be carefully insulated, and this process can be performed both outside and inside. The external way of laying the insulation depends on weather conditions, is associated with installation difficulties and is rarely used. Usually, the insulation is laid from the inside after the installation of a waterproof film, lathing and roofing. The sheets of heat-insulating material are cut with an allowance so that it fits between the rafters with an interference fit. At the same time, the formation of cold bridges is excluded, and in the case of a large weight of the sheets, they are additionally secured with a stretched wire. Then a vapor barrier film, lathing and finishing material are attached.

When laying the insulation, it is necessary to provide a ventilation gap to the waterproofing film

Thermal insulation materials are produced by manufacturers such as ROCKWOOL, URSA, ISOVER, KNAUF and others. The choice of insulation must be approached responsibly and pay attention to the following properties:

  • light weight and moisture resistance;
  • high thermal insulation properties;
  • resistance to temperature extremes;
  • compliance with environmental and fire safety requirements.

Heaters are produced in the form of rolls, have different thicknesses and sizes, for example, 3900 X 1200 X 150 mm or 1170 X 610 X 100 mm, which is convenient for delivery and installation.

Video: insulation of a pitched roof

Pitched roof drainage system

To drain rain and melt water on pitched roofs, a drainage system is used, which is needed to collect excess moisture from the roof and drain it to an equipped place. For this purpose, plastic or painted metal gutters, funnels and pipes of various sizes are installed on the eaves overhangs, the choice of which depends on the area of ​​the slope. The gutter system consists of the following components:

  • brackets for fastening gutters, which are fastened at least every 60 cm;
  • gutter with seals, plugs and corrective elements. It is set with a slope of 2–5 mm per linear meter towards the drainage funnel;
  • pivoting elements with internal and external corners;
  • connecting adapter from gutter to funnel;
  • funnels and downpipes with holders;
  • angle taps for 60 and 72about;
  • sewer flanges.

Home gutter system is assembled from a standard set of elements

For the correct selection of the width of the gutter and the diameter of the downpipes, it is necessary to take into account the angle of inclination of the roof and calculate the area of ​​the slope. The funnels are placed every 10 m. For accurate calculation of the size of the gutters and pipes, you can use the data in the reference tables.

Table: dependence of the diameter and width of the gutter on the area of ​​the slope

Slope area, m2Chute width, mmDownpipe diameter, mm
90–15010075
120–25012590
200–450150110

The gutter brackets are attached before the installation of the roofing and are set at a slope of 3-5about at a distance of 60–70 cm from each other. The rest of the elements are mounted sequentially after careful marking.

The gutter of the pitched roof is selected taking into account the catchment area and is mounted at a slope towards the drain funnel

Components for the gutter system must be purchased from one supplier, because the size and color of the elements may differ slightly from different manufacturers.

Maintenance of pitched roofs

Maintenance of pitched roofs can be planned or unplanned. The need for unscheduled work arises in the event of natural disasters, fires and other unforeseen situations. Scheduled maintenance should be carried out in the spring and autumn, in winter, it is also required to clean the roof of snow as needed. To determine the list of maintenance work, it is necessary to carry out a thorough inspection, during which the main components of the roof are checked:

  • serviceability of chimneys and ventilation ducts, no violations of waterproofing;
  • the cleanliness and integrity of the roofing and drainage system;
  • absence of obstacles for air flow through soffits;
  • serviceability of the cornice, especially after winter;
  • serviceability of the supporting elements of the roof, no signs of moisture, mold and decay;
  • the integrity of the gables.

If during the inspection deficiencies are found, it is necessary to take measures to eliminate them.

Installation of walking ladders on a pitched roof

Safety in the maintenance of pitched roofs requires the installation of stairs and ladders to access mortise windows, chimneys and aerators of the ventilation system. For this, metal structures are made with a width of 30-40 cm, which are adjusted in accordance with the angle of inclination of the slopes. Such products make it possible to maintain equipment located on the roof, and are supplied with the necessary fasteners for their installation on the supporting structure of the roof.

To service chimneys and ventilation systems, walkways are used

To give the materials of the ladder anti-corrosion properties, their surfaces are painted with water and heat-resistant paint in the color of the main roof covering. These structures are mounted in the upper part of the slope as close as possible to chimneys, ventilation pipes and other important equipment.

Rules for the operation of pitched roofs in winter

In winter, pitched roofs require special attention. Frequent changes in temperature and snowfall contribute to the formation of sediment and icing. During this difficult period, the following rules must be followed:

  • inspect chimneys and ventilation mines for the absence of snow deposits;
  • after a snowfall, check the presence of snowdrifts on the roof sections;
  • inspect the eaves and drainage system for icing;
  • ensure the cleanliness of stairs, ladders and rope anchorages;
  • when cleaning from snow and ice, use a tool that excludes damage to the roofing;
  • leave a layer of snow on the roof from 3 to 5 cm;
  • strictly follow the safety regulations.

To facilitate the winter operation of the roof, it is advisable to install an automatic heating system for the roof and drainage system. This equipment will significantly simplify the maintenance of the pitched roof and ensure its safety.

Video: cleaning a pitched roof from snow

We examined the types of pitched roofs, their structure, roofing pie, the main units, as well as the principles of installation, ventilation and maintenance. A properly constructed roof will serve its owners for many years and protect the house from cold and precipitation.


Do-it-yourself mansard roof: construction drawings

So, the walls of the house are built, there is not much left - to build the roof.

A common thing for low-rise construction is the attic.

It can be summer, winter, different designs and shapes.

There are certain diagrams and drawings for the construction of a mansard roof with your own hands, which have taken root in our country and abroad, have proven themselves on the good side over many years of service.

There are also those that are not very good in our conditions. About those and others - further.


The obvious benefits of a roof garden

An enthusiast who decides to equip a green roof gets a number of advantages over supporters of traditional solutions.

Additional heat and sound insulation of the house. A green roof is an excellent thermal insulation: in winter it protects from the cold, and in summer - from overheating, that is, it has a beneficial effect on the microclimate under the roof and on the site. Therefore, green roofs are useful in both northern and southern regions.

The roof will last at least 20 years without repair. A properly greened roof ensures the safety of the waterproofing coating for a long time, which in one way or another suffers from UV radiation and temperature drops, is subject to deformation during uneven heating and mechanical damage. From all this, waterproofing will be reliably protected by a pound layer and a green carpet. Sometimes, in order to make the coating durable, the roof is specially planted with a lawn, without even providing for its operation. In this sense, the most reliable of the roofs is completely covered with a pound. Moreover, there is practically no rainfall on such a surface.

Space compensation. Greening the roof of a house, especially one built on a small plot, will return the green lawns that have died under construction to the owner, and will preserve the microclimate of the territory.


Types of mansard roofs

The roof of the attic type used in the construction of private houses has various device options. You can make all existing types of roofs, except, perhaps, flat. All others can be realized both in "pure" form, and in combination.

Single slope

Houses with single-pitched mansard roofs look unusual. Its device is the simplest due to the lack of a skate and the problems associated with its arrangement. The beams are supported by a Mauerlat fixed to the multilevel walls. The bevel is formed by the difference in height between two opposite walls. In this case, the angle of the slope should be in the region of 35 ° -45 °. A smaller slope will lead to the accumulation of a large amount of snow, which requires strengthening the bearing beams and installing additional supports, and this reduces the already not very large living space in such an attic floor.

Shed roof roof

If we talk about the exterior design of the house, the buildings look non-standard. Most often, a large window is made in the high wall of the attic floor: the structure itself has this. For examples, see the photo below.

This house with a pitched roof attic is the most conservative

The device of a single-pitched roof is the cheapest if the distance between two opposite walls does not exceed 4.5 meters: you can lay bars of standard length on the walls and not make supporting structures. Apparently this is the reason for the decision in the photos below, but it turned out very interesting.

If the distance between the walls is less, the design is quite simple Custom solution: two pitched roofs form a terrace between them

Gable

A gable roof attic is the most widespread: with a general structure, there can be many solutions. The design itself is the most optimal: at a relatively low cost, it can satisfy various requirements for the required area of ​​the room.

The easiest way is to implement an attic under a conventional gable roof, but its height must be sufficient so that a living space can be distinguished under it (if the floor is supposed to be made residential). May be:

  • symmetrical - the ridge is located above the middle of the building
  • asymmetric - the ridge is offset from the center.

The gables are straight. The room turns out to be trapezoidal; in fairly wide buildings, a square one can be distinguished. The disadvantage of a gable roof of the attic type is that a large space is cut off on the sides, which is not always acceptable in private houses. To prevent large areas from walking, they are used for arranging pantries or cabinets.

Attic floor construction under a gable roof

With such a device, windows are made in the roof, their location depends on the angle of inclination. They can be auditory, as in the photo above or in the plane of the roof, as in the photo below.

There is another option for arranging the attic roof of a private house with two slopes - one and a half floor. It is installed on walls driven out to a certain level. The house is then called "one and a half floors" (one of these houses in the photo above).

The difference in usable area is obvious, but the costs are also higher (for wall material)

These are two types of gable roofs. There is also a third - broken ones. They can be divided into a separate category - the device has significant differences.

Broken lines

The device of a sloping mansard roof is both more complicated and simpler. In fact, these are the same two slopes, but consisting of two parts with a different slope. Such a structure allows, without spending money on the construction of walls, to get a living space, only slightly smaller than on the lower floor (by about 15%). In this sense, its structure is simpler. But the rafter system has a more complex structure, and in this sense, its structure is more complicated.

The construction of a sloping mansard roof is the most commonly used version of the rafter system - with the removal of a part of the rafter beyond the wall surface. Thus, an overhang is formed, which protects the junction to the walls from precipitation.

It is this type that is most common for self-construction. It easily allows you to increase the usable area, build on small buildings such as a garage or a summer kitchen, get additional, almost isolated, housing. Since materials are usually used in construction, lightweight, the bearing capacity of the foundation is usually sufficient, but the calculation does not fit. (Read about the calculation of the strip foundation here).

A small room made of logs at the bottom, and on top - a vast attic, resting on racks

Four-slope

These are already complex systems that must be calculated. The surface is large, the cost of insulation increases significantly, at the same time the size of the attic room decreases: parts of the premises are cut off from all four sides.

Their plus is their high resistance to strong winds: all surfaces are inclined and the wind load does not put so much pressure on the slopes. The structure is such that the overhangs can be made low, protecting the walls from the effects of precipitation and winds. In addition, houses with such roofs are considered by many to be the most attractive. The classic version of the hipped roof is hip.

One of the types of hipped roofs is a hip roof and an attic room under it. You can stand in full growth only in the central part

When they are installed, inclined rafters are reinforced - they account for most of the load. In general, its rafter system is one of the most complex, material-intensive and, therefore, expensive. So that you can estimate the entire scope of work and costs, consider its design in the photo below.

Hip roof rafter system

In the upper picture, all the stops, slopes that need to be placed are visible, on the second, the structure and location of the rafters are more clearly drawn.

There is also a transitional option - a half-hip. She is a cross between a gable and a hipped roof. In this case, the hip is made only for a part of the floor height.

Mansard semi-hip roof. Organization of her rafter system

Only the main types of mansard roofs are described. There are also combinations of them. For example, a hip can also be broken, as well as a single-pitched one. There are really a lot of options. The main thing is not to make gross mistakes when developing a rafter system, and then implement everything correctly.


The main types of roofs

Pitched roof

Modern roofs are a rather complex system of overlapping beams and rafters, which determine not only the shape of the roof, but also its main functions during operation.

The design and appearance of the roof depends not only on the geometry of the roof, but also on various additional functions that differ according to the chosen design. For example, the structural elements of a hip roof directly affect its appearance.


Soft roof for the roof: types of coatings and their characteristics

First of all, when installing the roof, more importance is given to weight. Even if at first glance it seems that sheet material weighing 3-4 kg is not capable of overloading the rafter system, the total weight of the coating should be taken into account, which in fact will not be so small. On the other hand, if you want to start installing the roof yourself, the purchased material should have a simple installation system, be easy to process, cut and repair.

All these requirements are met by various types of soft roofing, photos of which you could more than once come across on the net or even see these materials on the street.

The broken roof structure is covered with soft tiles

A soft roof has the following advantages:

  • resistance to negative environmental influences (the material retains its properties even under the influence of high and low temperatures)
  • excellent strength characteristics, especially tensile strength
  • simple installation system
  • the minimum number of tools required to organize the roof
  • installation of coverings on roofs with a complex structure, without complex preparatory measures
  • no noise during further operation
  • fire safety
  • long service life - up to 15 years.

Note! Roofing material, which belongs to roll types of roofing, is not a fire-resistant coating. This version of the material is rather an exclusion from the list.

Different buildings on the site are decorated in the same style using a soft roof

Roll and membrane materials, soft tiles: roof photos

In the soft flooring category, there are other products besides soft tiles. Roof types are distinguished based on the raw materials used for their manufacture:

  • different types of mastic
  • membrane made of polymer materials
  • soft or bituminous shingles
  • roll-type coatings.

Most of these materials are able to offer very favorable characteristics, not only technical, but also operational:

  • high strength
  • flexibility
  • anti-corrosion properties
  • water resistance
  • high quality sound insulation
  • antifungal properties
  • good thermal insulation.

Installation of soft bitumen shingles

Thanks to all these advantages, soft roofing coatings have become so widespread. Their scope:

  • private houses
  • cottages
  • warehouses
  • production area facilities
  • large commercial buildings.

If you are choosing a soft roofing material, first of all, you should pay attention to the level of heat resistance, and only then consider other characteristics: the level of elasticity, flexibility and strength in relation to mechanical stress.

As for the mastic, here the primary indicator is the percentage of solids content, the level of adhesion, as well as the time it takes to fully cure. Durability plays an important role when choosing any coating option.

Flexible roof is ideal for installation on complex roof structures

Features of soft tiles: photos, characteristics and prices

Soft shingles, called bitumen shingles, are produced by cutting roll material. Each such sheet contains 4 rectangular, diamond-shaped or hexagonal elements. Thanks to the use of all kinds of dyes, there are several material options on the market:

  • natural covering in the form of tiles
  • aged surface overgrown with moss
  • aged surface overgrown with lichens.

Note! Despite the fact that bituminous tiles in their characteristics are close to piece materials, they are still classified as a roll type of coating, due to their structure and scope.

Prices for the purchase of bituminous shingles:

Brand name Product name (color) Price, rub./m²
MIDA Quadro (brown, red) 510
Prima (green, red, brown) 645
Chord (green, red, brown) 710
Trio (antique) 710
Ridge-cornice (red, brown, green) 1140
Shinglas Square dance Sonata (whiskey, red-brown) 1150
Square dance Accord (sandalwood) 1150
Ridge-cornice (whiskey, sandalwood) 1860
Tegola (Top Shingle) Futuro (green, brown, red, gray) 299
Smalto (green, brown, red, gray) 238
Premier (red brown, light brown, dark brown) 455
Vintage (green, red, brown, gray) 273

The service life of shingles is about 15–20 years. Installation is carried out on an inclined surface. The minimum tilt angle is 10 °. Soft tiles can be used not only for the organization of the roof, but also as a covering on the adjacent vertical zones of the walls.

Membrane coating: features and price of a soft roof for 1 sq. meter

The roof membrane has a thickness of 0.8–2 mm. This type of material has several varieties, depending on the raw materials used in production. Membrane coating types:

  • PVC - made of polymer raw materials (provides protection against fire and ultraviolet radiation)

Membrane roll roofing made of PVC

  • EPDM - rubber was used as the material for the manufacture, the coating is reinforced with a mesh made of polyester (strength, environmental safety)
  • TPO - thermoplastic olefins reinforced with mesh (environmental friendliness) are used as raw materials for coating production.

Note! Since the PVC membrane covering is made of polymer materials, this type of roof cannot be called environmentally friendly.

Prices for PVC membrane coating:

Brand name Material name Price, rub./m²
Eco Plast V-GR 300
V-RP 400
Logicroof T-PL 400
T-SL 510
V-PR 570
V-PR Arctic 460
V-SR 460
Ico pal Monarplan D 680
Monarplan FM 499
Monarplan W 953

The service life of a membrane roof covering is about 50 years. Due to the large width, it is convenient to cover the roof with the material, and this can be done at any time of the year. There is no need to install additional water protection.

Among the minuses, only a difficult preparatory stage can be noted, since the membrane roof does not tolerate debris and pebbles on the surface. Organic solvents and oils can damage the material.

Specificity of a soft roll roof: types and prices

Soft roll roofing offers several different roof materials. The most popular and affordable is roofing material. In production, the following scheme for its manufacture is used:

  • forming a blank from roofing cardboard
  • bitumen impregnation
  • double-sided processing with a mixture based on bitumen with a high level of hardness and mineral filler
  • application of an outer coating in the form of a special bulk material.

Roofing material is often used as a covering for flat roofs

The service life of such material is 5 years. In addition to roll, there is also a tiled roofing material, but it has a completely different manufacturing scheme and properties.

Helpful advice! If you want to get longer service life, it is worth purchasing roofing material made using modern technology. Thanks to the use of polyester fabric or fiberglass sheet, the service life is doubled.

Rubemast also belongs to the category of roll coatings. This type of roofing is a bituminous deposited material with a higher percentage of binder than roofing felt.

There are a number of similar fiberglass-based coatings:

  • glass mat
  • glass roofing material
  • glass-insol
  • euroruberoid.

The cost of roll roofing materials for the roof:

Material type Name, coverage area in a roll Price, rub / roll
Roofing material RPP-300-0 (0), 15 m² 234
RKP-350 (02), 15 m² 285
RKP-350 (0), 15 m² 344
RKK-350 TU, 10 m² 370
Stekloizol R HPP-2.10, 9 m² 304
R KhKP-3.5 granulate, 9 m² 485
R TKP-3.5 granulate, 9 m² 585
Gidrostekloizol TPP03.0 glass fabric, 9 m² 564

Fiberglass based materials are characterized by a long service life. The minimum operating period is 20 years. This category of roofing has only one drawback - vulnerability to low temperatures. But the problem is easily solved due to multilayer installation (3-4 layers of material).

Modern roofing materials: risolin

Rizolin belongs to the materials of the modern generation with a flexible and soft structure. The coating is self-adhesive and is made on the basis of a reinforcing fabric, which is filled with a mixture of bitumen-polymer substances and special additives.

Note! Thanks to the foil surface, the material can be dyed with any synthetic dyes in order to improve its appearance.

Rizolin is a modern bitumen-polymer coating with a foil surface

• A - double-sided self-adhesive surface
• P - self-adhesive surface on one side and polymer base on the other
• F - aluminum foil base and standard adhesive surface.

The material with a foil-coated surface provides risoline with reliable protection against premature destruction, and also slows down these processes. The assortment includes options for products with a copper base, which are covered with a very thin layer of foil.

Prices for the purchase of risolin:

Name Material type Price, rub./m²
AS Self-adhesive on both sides from 200
FSA Self-adhesive + aluminum interlayer (30 MKN) from 230
Shumka-F Hydro-noise insulation coating from 230
Bituminous primer Cold waterproofing coating (liquid) from 350 (bank)
Vapor barrier Vapor barrier bitumen-polymer coating from 90
Sandwich Three-layer coating with risoline cladding from 950

Each of the considered coatings has certain advantages and disadvantages. When choosing a roofing material, you should take into account the characteristics, scope, and also rely on your own taste preferences and financial capabilities.


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