Garden irrigation

Garden irrigation

Water for irrigation

The very ancient practice of irrigating the garden through different techniques of artificial administration of fresh water is the most natural system to favor the growth phases of plants and to increase productivity in the garden by compensating for that contribution of rainwater that is not constantly and sufficiently guaranteed by the irregularity of rainfall and atmospheric phenomena throughout the year, even in regions with the most favorable climate. Aimed at supplying the entire cultivated plot with water with a regular and uniform distribution, of easy application in the presence of leveling of the soil, it supports the vital water requirement for the physiological, evolutionary and reproduction processes of the crops. Making the necessary amount of water available to crops is effective in maintaining the correct balance of water contents in the plant, while watering at regular intervals allows the superficial root system to stretch from the upper layers of the soil to the depths to extract most humidity available. In the composition of plant cells, the functionality of water is in fact fundamental both as the chemical basis of nutrition, as it is part of the composition of circulating liquids to transport nutrients, and in thermoregulation through transpiration, reaching a total of 90-96 vegetables content. %, so much so that their quality improves by developing under ideal conditions, rooted in damp clods.

Water needs of the garden

The water requirement of horticultural products depends on numerous factors inherent to the plant, such as the species and variety of crops, the phase of vegetation, the water reserve it has available and can be used directly in the soil, the state of the soil and the humidity present, the local climatic conditions in the growing area. The greatest water consumption in the world is therefore attributed to the agricultural sector and absorbs about 70%, but especially in developing countries the intensity of irrigation - dictated in particular by the climate, type of crops and agricultural methods - can increase up to 95% of global employment.

Determining the quality of the water available (surface of streams, wells, etc.) for irrigation is a fundamental prerequisite for any garden design. Laboratory analyzes determine the concentration of dissolved salts (sodium, etc.) and elements dangerous to health (phytotoxicity, bacterial contamination, etc.) contained in the water available for agriculture and which would remain in the same irrigated land. The recovery and recycling of rainwater at room temperature through a series of tanks placed under the gutters, capacious containers in a lateral position in the vegetable garden, or specific modular systems, represent the most natural, ecological and economical solution to irrigate wherever the climatic conditions they allow it.

When to irrigate

Usually the most suitable time for irrigation is at sunset or early morning, sometimes even at night, but in any case when the ground is not heated by the sun, avoiding strong thermal contrasts, so the water stays there longer. and the humidity evaporates more slowly. During the summer season, it is advisable to water in the evening, or even at night, if the available water is rather cold (e.g. current from the aqueduct), to allow the crops to be more refreshed during the night, ready to better face the subsequent daytime heat. In this hot period, during which water tends to evaporate quickly when it comes into contact with the surface of the soil, irrigation for agricultural purposes must be prolonged to be able to moisten the substrate in such a way as not to risk incurring deleterious consequences due to roots that have remained dry (eg water stress signaled by the withering of the plant followed by the darkening of the tips and edges of the leaves). With the protraction or with the initial lowering of temperatures in the spring and autumn seasons, it is then convenient to irrigate in the morning, but not too early, unless you are using cold water (e.g. from wells), while with those at optimal ambient temperature (eg reserve from rains) you can proceed in the afternoon and in the evening.

How much to water

The actual frequency of irrigation is first of all suggested by the evident aspect that horticultural crops assume, although it must be borne in mind that the distribution must take place on a regular basis to allow the plants to grow in the best way without having periods of water available with irrigation. abruptly alternating with others in a state of lack or drought. The predominantly sandy soils require shorter irrigation intervals than those with a clayey tendency, which bear limits of a few consecutive days without water (at most 6-7 days, depending on the case). It happens, in fact, that in the sandy soil the water percolates easily and infiltrates the deeper layers of the soil, so that the root systems of the crops remain dry within a short time while, on the contrary, the clay retains the water longer. on a surface level. In a soil with sandy loam, for example, the mostly superficial root systems of vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, lettuce, potatoes, radishes, celery, need frequent irrigation more on the surface than beets, carrots, cucumbers, beans, okra, peppers, tomatoes, courgettes.

Emergency irrigation for the vegetable garden

On the occasion of the occurrence of unexpected climatic conditions that could be considered of such an extent as to compromise the crop yield in place in the garden, if necessary, emergency irrigation is carried out to rehydrate the soil gradually through repeated doses under doses until the ideal humidity state is found . An auxiliary operation of supplementary irrigation is instead reserved to support horticultural ones (e.g. tomatoes) that find themselves in particular weak conditions (e.g. transplant, water stress, etc.) or in critical stages of development (germination , flowering, maturation, etc.) in the face of a period of shortage or lack of atmospheric precipitation, so that the modest quantities of water supplied in compensation are aimed at stabilizing the yield.

Irrigation methods

The different natural water requirements of the vegetables lead to diversified irrigation which is facilitated where cultivation has been planned in an area based on this kind of criterion. A traditional watering can or an extendable rubber hose connected at the end with a water sprayer or with a multifunctional water spray gun with adjustable jet may be sufficient to specifically wet seedbeds and small-sized family gardens. The water distributed by direct jet or through sprinklers could create a water stagnation on the leaves remaining sprayed in place of the base of the plants, creating favorable conditions for the development of soil-borne fungal infections. In fact, sprinkler irrigation with doses administered in a regular and uniform manner is more recommended in the presence of extensive crops (eg beet fields) on permeable soil surfaces, in bright and non-windy areas. Even in vegetable gardens that are not perfectly flat, especially with extensive crops with large foliage (tomatoes, aubergines, peppers, courgettes, etc.), it is functional to water with a gravity system for lateral flow infiltration, filling with water only small separate furrow depressions. and arranged (with the hoe or spade) close to the plants, so that the absorption takes place slowly in the duct.

Garden irrigation: Drippers and drippers for the garden

The use of rain emitters with mist droplets is one of the most correct permanent environmental practices for fungal prevention with plants such as peppers, tomatoes, aubergines, etc., while freshly buried salad and seeds must be watered gently from the 'high with micro-sprayers applied to collector tubes or rigid rods that emit a very fine rain cloud of atomized water. Water saving compared to traditional systems, the drip irrigation system through micro-perforated pipes of small diameter arranged above ground exploits the pressure of the water flows with a slow, prolonged, controlled sprinkling, localized in a capillary way, directed to the root o adjacent to the plant, which can be automated with programmable timers, it can be installed in any type of terrain (even on a slope). With the most advanced customized irrigation technique represented by underground sub-irrigation by means of underground driplines of a few centimeters, depending on the depth of the root system of the crops, the optimized management of the distribution by droplet micro-irrigation, at low output and with precision , by maintaining a constantly humidified layer of soil contiguous to the rows without incurring saturation phenomena, it can also be applied to large areas of crops with automated timers at programmed times. Combined with irrigation, the mulching technique is recommended to keep the soil moist near plants with specific water requirements and the substrate cool enough, as well as being advantageous for controlling weeds, protecting from frost, etc.

Dripping Wing Garden Irrigation Kit

Every garden has its needs, you know. In deciding what is the best way to irrigate your plants, there are many factors to take into account: land size, sun exposure, type of plants, access to the water supply and many others. An increasingly common, ecological and economic choice is that of irrigation [...]

How to make a vegetable garden in the garden: what to plant

The solutions are endless available.

From the shapes and sizes of the different vegetables, to the possible combinations, by taking a look at the gardening departments of the shopping centers and specialized shops, you can discover awide range of products.

The important thing is to follow the exact period for the sowing and the cultivation some vegetables.

Video: Better than Drip Irrigation? Most Efficient Garden Irrigation System. Save up to 90% More Water